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The sheriff also commanded the armed forces of the crown within his county, and either in person or by deputy presided over the county court which was now held monthly in most counties. In it was enacted that the sheriffs might be chosen by the county, except in Worcestershire, Cornwall, Rutland, Westmorland and Lancashire, where there were then sheriffs in fee, that is, sheriffs who held their offices hereditarily by royal grant.
The elective arrangement was of no long duration, and it was finally decided in that the sheriffs should be appointed by the chancellor, the treasurer and the chief baron of the exchequer, but should hold office for one year only. The county was from an early period regarded as a community, and approached the king as a corporate body, while in later times petitions were presented through the knights of the shire. It was also an organic whole for the purpose of the conservation of the peace. The assessment of taxation by commissioners appointed by the county court developed in the 13th century into the representation of the county by two knights of the shire elected by the county court to serve in parliament, and this representation continued unaltered save for a short period during the Protectorate, until , when many of the counties received a much larger representation, which was still further increased by later acts.
The royal control over the county was strengthened from the 14th century onward by the appointment of justices of the peace. The lord-lieutenant now usually holds the older office of custos rotulorum , or keeper of the records of the county. The justices of the peace are appointed upon his nomination, and until lately he appointed the clerk of the peace. The latter appointment is now made by the joint committee of quarter sessions and county council. The Tudor system of local government received little alteration until the establishment of county councils by the Local Government Act of handed over to an elected body many of the functions previously exercised by the nominated justices of the peace.
For the purposes of this act the ridings of Yorkshire, the divisions of Lincolnshire, east and west Sussex, east and west Suffolk, the soke of Peterborough and the Isle of Ely are regarded as counties, so that there are now sixty administrative counties of England and Wales. Between and the crown granted to certain cities and boroughs the privilege of being counties of themselves. All these boroughs, with the exception of Carmarthen, Lichfield, Poole and Haverfordwest, which remain counties of themselves, and forty-seven others, were created county boroughs by the Local Government Act , and are entirely dissociated from the control of a county council.
The City of London is also a county of itself, whose two sheriffs are also sheriffs of Middlesex, while for the purposes of the act of the house-covered district which extends for many miles round the City constitutes a county. The county has always been the unit for the organization of the militia, and from about certain regiments of the regular army were associated with particular counties by territorial titles. The army scheme of provided for the formation of county associations under the presidency of the lords-lieutenant for the organization of the new territorial army. See Statutes of the Realm ; W. Stubbs, Constitutional History of England ; F. Pollock and F. Maitland, History of English Law ; H. The county court, it has been said, is at once the most ancient and the most modern of English civil tribunals.
The Saxon Curia Comitatus, maintained after the Norman Conquest, was a local court and a small debts court. It was instituted by Alfred the Great, its jurisdiction embracing civil, and, until the reign of William I. The officers of the court consisted of the earldorman, the bishop and the sheriff. The court was held once in every four weeks, being presided over by the earl, or, in his absence, the sheriff.
The suitors of the court, i. The court was not one of record. The appointment of judges of assize in the reign of Henry II. These, in turn, proved unsatisfactory, owing both to the limited nature of their jurisdiction restricted to causes of debt not exceeding 40s. Accordingly, with the view of making justice cheaper and more accessible the County Courts Act was passed. Thirteen amending acts were passed, by which new jurisdiction was from time to time conferred on the county courts, and in the year an act was passed repealing the previous acts and consolidating their provisions, with some amendment. This is now the code or charter of the county courts. The grain of mustard-seed sown in has grown into a goodly tree, with branches extending over the whole of England and Wales; and they embrace within their ambit a more multifarious jurisdiction than is possessed by any other courts in the kingdom.
England and Wales were mapped out into 59 circuits not including the city of London , with power for the crown, by order in council, to abolish any circuit and rearrange the areas comprised in the circuits sec. There is one judge to each circuit, but the lord chancellor is empowered to appoint two judges in a circuit, provided that the total number of judges does not exceed Every circuit except in Birmingham, Clerkenwell, and Westminster is divided into districts, in each of which there is a court, with a registrar and bailiffs.
The judges are directed to attend and hold a court in each district at least once in every month, unless the lord chancellor shall otherwise direct secs. But in practice the judge sits several times a month in the large centres of population, and less frequently than once a month in the court town of sparsely inhabited districts. By sec. There is no discoverable principle upon which these limits of the jurisdiction of the county courts have been determined. But the above table is not by any means an exhaustive statement of the jurisdiction of the county courts.
For many years it has been the practice of parliament to throw on the county court judges the duty of acting as judges or arbitrators for the purpose of new legislation relating to social subjects. It is impossible to classify the many statutes which have been passed since and which confer some jurisdiction, apart from that under the County Courts Act, on county courts or their judges. Some of these acts impose exceptional duties on the judges of the county courts, others confer unlimited jurisdiction concurrently with the High Court or some other court, others, again, confer limited or, sometimes, exclusive jurisdiction.
A list of all the acts will be found in the Annual County Courts Practice. The number of jurymen impanelled and sworn at the trial was, by the County Courts Act , increased from five to eight. There is an appeal from the county courts on matters of law to a divisional court of the High Court, i. The determination of the divisional court is final, unless leave be given by that court or the court of appeal Judicature Acts See further Appeal. Snagge, in Nineteenth Century , October The New English Dict.
In rhymed verse two lines which complete a meaning in themselves are particularly known as a couplet. In much of old English dramatic literature, when the mass of the composition is in blank verse or even in prose, particular emphasis is given by closing the scene in a couplet. In French literature, the term couplet is not confined to a pair of lines, but is commonly used for a stanza.
In this sense it is employed to distinguish the more emphatic parts of a species of verse which is essentially gay, graceful and frivolous, such as the songs in a vaudeville or a comic opera. In the 18th century, Le Sage, Piron and even Voltaire did not hesitate to engage their talents on the production of couplets, which were often witty, if they had no other merit, and were well fitted to catch the popular ear. This signification of the word couplet is not unknown in England, but it is not customary; it is probably used in a stricter and a more technical sense to describe a pair of rhymed lines, whether serious or merry.
The normal type, as it may almost be called, of English versification is the metre of ten-syllabled rhymed lines designated as heroic couplet. This form of iambic verse, with five beats to each line, is believed to have been invented by Chaucer, who employs it first in the Prologue The Legend of Good Women the composition of which is attributed to the year That poem opens with the couplet:—. This is an absolutely correct example of the heroic couplet, which ultimately reached such majesty in the hands of Dryden and such brilliancy in those of Pope.
It has been considered proper for didactic, descriptive and satirical poetry, although in the course of the 19th century blank verse largely took its place. The word coupon a piece cut off possesses an etymological meaning so comprehensive that, while on the Stock Exchange it is only used to denote such an interest certificate or a certificate of stock of a joint-stock company, it may be as suitably, and elsewhere is perhaps more frequently, applied to tickets sold by tourist agencies and others. The coupons by means of which the interest on a bond or debenture is collected are generally printed at the side or foot of that document, to be cut off and presented for payment at the bank or agency named on them as they become due.
They pass by delivery, and are as a rule exempt from stamp duty. Coupons for the payment of dividends are also attached to the share warrants to bearer issued by some joint-stock companies. The coupons on the bonds of most of the principal foreign loans are payable in London in sterling as well as abroad. It is also a musical term for a movement or independent piece based on the dance. In a suite it followed the Allemande q. Williams, London, ; reprinted Oxford, , with memoir of the author , an attempt to prove that there has been no break in the line of ordination from the apostles to the English clergy. He died in London on the 17th of October , and was buried in the cloisters of Westminster Abbey. In his will, dated two years before his death, he declared himself still a member of the Roman Catholic Church, although dissenting from many of its opinions.
He went to Paris in , and worked at the studio of Steuben and Hesse; but his independent spirit did not allow him to remain there long, as he preferred to work out his own way by the study of Spanish, Flemish and French painters. When Courbet had made a name as an artist he grew ambitious of other glory; he tried to promote democratic and social science, and under the Empire he wrote essays and dissertations.
To escape the necessity of working to the end of his days at the orders of the State in order to pay this sum, Courbet went to Switzerland in , and died at La Tour du Peilz, on the 31st of December , of a disease of the liver aggravated by intemperance. Lemonnier, Les Peintres de la Vie Paris, Seneuil was an additional name adopted from his native place. Devoting himself at first to the study of the law, he was called to the French bar in Soon after, however, he returned to Dordogne and settled down as a manager of ironworks. He found leisure to study economic and political questions, and was a frequent contributor to the republican papers.
On the establishment of the second republic in he became director of the public domains. He died at Paris on the 29th of June Courcelle-Seneuil, as an economist, was strongly inclined towards the liberal school, and was equally partial to the historical and experimental methods; but his best energies were directed to applied economy and social questions. After the accession of Richard I. De Lacy quickly made his peace with Richard, while de Courci defied him; and the subsequent history of the latter consisted mainly in the vicissitudes of a lasting feud with the de Lacys.
In Hugh de Lacy utterly defeated de Courci in battle, and took him prisoner. He again appeared in arms on hearing that Hugh de Lacy had obtained a grant of Ulster with the title of earl; and in alliance with the king of Man he ravaged the territory of Down; but was completely routed by Walter de Lacy, and disappeared from the scene till , when he obtained permission to return to England. In he was in favour with King John, from whom he received a pension, and whom he accompanied to Ireland. There is some indication of his having sided with John in his struggle with the barons; but of the later history of de Courci little is known. He probably died in the summer of Both de Courci and his wife Affreca were benefactors of the church, and founded several abbeys and priories in Ulster.
John de Courci left no legitimate children. London, , to which is added a bibliography of the original and later authorities for the life of de Courci. He served in various campaigns of the Revolutionary wars, especially in those of Italy in and , and in the German campaign of Courier had given up his commission in the autumn of , but the general enthusiasm in Paris over the preparations for the new campaign affected him, and he attached himself to the staff of a general of artillery. But he was horror-struck by the carnage at Wagram , refusing from that time to believe that there was any art in war. He hastily quitted Vienna, escaping the formal charge of desertion because his new appointment had not been confirmed. The savage independence of his nature rendered subordination intolerable to him; he had been three times disgraced for absenting himself without leave, and his superiors resented his satirical humour.
In consequence of a misadventure—blotting the manuscript—he was involved in a quarrel with the librarian, and was compelled by the government to leave Tuscany. After the second restoration of the Bourbons the career of Courier as political pamphleteer began. He had before this time waged war against local wrongs in his own district, and had been the adviser and helpful friend of his neighbours.
He now made himself by his letters and pamphlets one of the most dreaded opponents of the government of the Restoration. He advocated a liberal monarchy, at the head of which he doubtless wished to see Louis Philippe. For this he was tried and condemned to suffer a short imprisonment and to pay a fine. Before he went to prison he published a compte rendu of his trial, which had a still larger circulation than the Discours itself.
In appeared the Livret de Paul Louis , the Gazette de village , followed in by his famous Pamphlet des pamphlets , called by his biographer, Armand Carrel, his swan-song. He also projected a translation of Herodotus, and published a specimen, in which he attempted to imitate archaic French; but he did not live to carry out this plan. In the autumn of , on a Sunday afternoon August 18th , Courier was found shot in a wood near his house. The murderers, who were servants of his own, remained undiscovered for five years. The writings of Courier, dealing with the facts and events of his own time, are valuable sources of information as to the condition of France before, during, and after the Revolution. Courier appeared in Sarcey ; also three notices by Sainte-Beuve in the Causeries du lundi and the Nouveaux Lundis.
It is bounded on the N. The area is 10, sq. The surface is generally low and undulating, and the coast-lands flat and marshy. The interior is characterized by wooded dunes, covered with pine, fir, birch and oak, with swamps and lakes, and fertile patches between. The surface nowhere rises more than ft. The Mitau plain divides it into two parts, of which the western is fertile and thickly inhabited, except in the north, while the eastern is less fertile and thinly inhabited. One-third of the area is still forest. Courland is drained by nearly one hundred rivers, of which only three, the Dvina, the Aa and the Windau, are navigable. They all flow north-westwards and discharge into the Baltic Sea.
Owing to the numerous lakes and marshes, the climate is damp and often foggy, as well as changeable, and the winter is severe. Agriculture is the chief occupation, the principal crops being rye, barley, oats, wheat, flax and potatoes. The land is mostly owned by nobles of German descent. In laws were issued to enable the Letts, who form the bulk of the population, to acquire the farms which they held, and special banks were founded to help them. By this means some 12, farms were bought by their occupants; but the great mass of the population are still landless, and live as hired labourers, occupying a low position in the social scale.
On the large estates agriculture is conducted with skill and scientific knowledge. Fruit grows well. Excellent breeds of cattle, sheep and pigs are kept. Libau and Mitau are the principal industrial centres, with iron-works, agricultural machinery works, tanneries, glass and soap works. Flax spinning is mostly a domestic industry. Iron and limestone are the chief minerals; a little amber is found on the coast. The population was , in ; , in , of whom , were women; , estimate in The chief towns of the ten districts are Mitau Doblenskiy district , capital of the government pop.
Anciently Courland was inhabited by the Cours or Kurs, a Lettish tribe, who were subdued and converted to Christianity by the Brethren of the Sword, a German military order, in the first quarter of the 13th century. In it passed under the rule of the Teutonic Knights owing to the amalgamation of this order with that of the Brethren of the Sword. At that time it comprised the two duchies of Courland and Semgallen. Under the increasing pressure of Russia Muscovy the Teutonic Knights in found it expedient to put themselves under the suzerainty of Poland, the grandmaster Gotthard Kettler d.
The duchy suffered severely in the Russo-Swedish wars of The celebrated Marshal Saxe was elected duke in , but only managed to maintain himself by force of arms till the next year. The last Kettler, William, titular duke of Courland, died in , and the empress Anne now bestowed the dignity on her favourite Biren, who held it from to and again from till his death in During nearly the whole of the 18th century Courland, devastated by continual wars, was a shuttlecock between Russia and Poland; until eventually in the assembly of the nobles placed it under the Russian sceptre.
The Baltic provinces—Esthonia, Livonia and Courland—ceased to form collectively one general government in See H. Seraphim, Geschichte Liv-, Esth-, und Kurlands 2 vols. Trained for the scholastic profession, he was appointed assistant professor at the Academy of Paris in , professor of mathematics at Lyons in , rector of the Academy of Grenoble in , inspector-general of studies in , rector of the Academy of Dijon and honorary inspector-general in , retiring in He died in Paris on the 31st of March Cournot was the first who, with a competent knowledge of both subjects, endeavoured to apply mathematics to the treatment of economic questions.
Bacon, with bibliography of mathematics of economics by Irving Fisher, was published in The truth seems to be that his results are in some cases of little importance, in others of questionable correctness, and that, in the abstractions to which he has recourse in order to facilitate his calculations, an essential part of the real conditions of the problem is sometimes omitted. His pages abound in symbols representing unknown functions, the form of the function being left to be ascertained by observation of facts, which he does not regard as a part of his task, or only some known properties of the undetermined function being used as bases for deduction. From time to time the sport has been pursued by various nations against various animals, but the recognized method has generally been the coursing of the hare by greyhounds.
Such sport is of great antiquity, and is fully described by Arrian in his Cynegeticus about A. Other Greek and Latin authors refer to the sport; but during the middle ages it was but little heard of. Apart from private coursing for the sake of filling the pot with game, public coursing has become an exhilarating sport. The private sportsman seldom possesses good strains of blood to breed his greyhounds from or has such opportunities of trying them as the public courser. The oldest regular coursing club of which any record exists is that of Swaffham, in Norfolk, which was founded by Lord Orford in ; and in the Ashdown Park Berkshire meeting was established. During the next seventy years many other large and influential societies sprang up throughout England and Scotland, the Altcar Club on the Sefton estates, near Liverpool being founded in The season lasts about six months, beginning in the middle of September.
It was not until that a coursing parliament, so to speak, was formed, and a universally accepted code of rules drawn up. In that year the National Coursing Club was founded. Their rules govern meetings, and their committee adjudicate on matters of dispute. A comparative trial of two dogs, and not the capture of the game pursued, is the great distinctive trait of modern coursing. A greyhound stud-book was started in At a meeting an agreed-on even number of entries are made for each stake, and the ties drawn by lot. A staff of beaters drive the hares out of their coverts or other hiding-places, whilst the slipper has the pair of dogs in hand, and slips them simultaneously by an arrangement of nooses, when they have both sighted a hare promising a good course.
The judge accompanies on horseback, and the six points whereby he decides a course are— 1 speed; 2 the go-by, or when a greyhound starts a clear length behind his opponent, passes him in the straight run, and gets a clear length in front; 3 the turn, where the hare turns at not less than a right angle; 4 the wrench, where the hare turns at less than a right angle; 5 the kill; 6 the trip, or unsuccessful effort to kill. In the United States, several British colonies, and other countries, the name has been adopted, and Waterloo Coursing Cups are found there as in England. Dansey ; T. Blaine, Encyclopaedia of Rural Sports 3rd ed. Walsh, The Greyhound 3rd ed. To the execution of this vast undertaking he devoted his life. Here elders were appointed, and the preaching of women, as well as pretended revelations, was condemned.
But there were as yet no ordained pastors. Pierre Corteiz was therefore sent to seek ordination. It was impossible fully to carry out this menace. But persecution raged, especially against the pastors. A price was set on the life of Court; and in he escaped to Lausanne. He had the title of deputy-general of the churches, and was really the pillar of their hope. Court formed the design of writing a history of Protestantism, and made large collections for the purpose, which have been preserved in the Public Library of Geneva; but this he did not live to carry out. He died at Lausanne in He was the father of the more generally known Antoine Court de Gebelin q.
Haag, La France protestante , vol. Such assemblies in early times exercised political and legislative as well as judicial functions. But these have now been almost entirely separated everywhere, and only judicial bodies are now usually called courts. In every court, says Blackstone, there must be three parts,—an actor or plaintiff, reus or defendant, and judex , or judge. The language of legal fictions, which English lawyers invariably use in all constitutional subjects, makes the king the ultimate source of all judicial authority, and assumes his personal presence in all the courts.
In all these courts the king is supposed in contemplation of law to be always present; but as that is in fact impossible, he is then represented by his judges, whose power is only an emanation of the royal prerogative. These words might give a false impression of the historical and legal relations of the courts and the crown, if it is not remembered that they are nothing more than the expression of a venerable fiction. The administration of justice was, indeed, one of the functions of the king in early times; the king himself sat on circuit so late as the reign of Edward IV. The last judicial act of an English king, if such it can be called, was that by which James I. Since the establishment of parliamentary government the courts take their law directly from the legislature, and the king is only connected with them indirectly as a member of the legislative body.
The courts exercising jurisdiction in England are divided by certain features which may here be briefly indicated. We may distinguish between 1 superior and inferior courts. The former are the courts of common law and the court of chancery, now High Court of Justice. For it is a settled rule and maxim that nothing shall be averred against a record, nor shall any plea or even proof be admitted to the contrary. And if the existence of the record shall be denied it shall be tried by nothing but itself; that is, upon bare inspection whether there be any such record or no; else there would be no end of disputes. In the former the first hearing in any judicial proceeding takes place; in the latter the judgment of the first court is brought under review.
Of the superior courts, the High Court of Justice in its various divisions is a court of first instance. Over it is the court of appeal, and over that again the House of Lords. The High Court of Justice is through divisional courts a court of appeal for inferior courts. Some, while administering the ordinary municipal law, have or had jurisdiction exclusive of their superior courts; such were the common pleas of Durham and Lancaster.
The distribution of judicial business among the various courts of law in England may be exhibited as follows. Criminal Courts. Besides punishing by summary conviction, justices may commit prisoners for trial at the assizes. The corresponding court in a borough is presided over by a recorder. The assize courts, as they are called, sit in general in each county twice a year, following the division of circuits; but additional assizes are also held under acts of and , which permit several counties to be united together for that purpose see Circuit.
London, which occupies an exceptional position in all matters of judicature, has a high criminal court of its own, established by the Central Criminal Court Act , under the name of the central criminal court. Its judges usually present are a rota selected from the superior judges of common law, the recorder, common serjeant, and the judge of the City of London court. To the criminal appeal court there is an appeal both on questions of fact and of law see Appeal. Civil Courts. Otherwise, and excepting the special and peculiar jurisdictions above mentioned, the civil business of England and Wales may be said to be divided between the county courts taking small cases and the High Court of Justice taking all others.
The effect of the Judicature Acts on the constitution of the superior courts may be briefly stated. There is now one Supreme Court of Judicature, consisting of two permanent divisions called the High Court of Justice and the court of appeal. The former takes the jurisdiction of the court of chancery, the three common law courts, the courts of admiralty, probate, and divorce, the courts of pleas at Lancaster and Durham, and the courts created by commissions of assize, oyer and terminer, and gaol delivery. The latter takes the jurisdiction of the court of appeal in chancery including chancery of Lancaster , the court of the lord warden of the stannaries, and of the exchequer chamber, and the appellate jurisdiction in admiralty and heresy matters of the judicial committee; and power is given to the sovereign to transfer the remaining jurisdiction of that court to the court of appeal.
By the Appellate Jurisdiction Act of the House of Lords is enabled to sit for the hearing of appeals from the English court of appeal and the Scottish and Irish courts during the prorogation and dissolution of parliament. The lords in ordinary are an innovation in the constitution of the House. The history of English courts affords a remarkable illustration of the continuity that characterizes English institutions. It might perhaps be too much to say that all the courts now sitting in England may be traced back to a common origin, but at any rate the higher courts are all offshoots from the same original judicature.
Leaving out of account the local courts, we find the higher jurisdiction after the Norman Conquest concentrated along with all other public functions in the king and council. In relation to the revenue it became the exchequer, under which name a separate court grew up whose special field was the judicial business arising out of revenue cases. Similar developments of the same authority were the court of requests which was destroyed by a decision of the common pleas and the court of star chamber—a court of criminal equity, as it has been called,—which, having been made the instrument of tyranny, was abolished in Even then the productive power of the council was not exhausted; the judicial committee of the privy council, established in , superseding the previous court of delegates, exercises the jurisdiction in appeal belonging to the king in council.
The appellate jurisdiction of the Lords rests on their claim to be the representatives of the ancient great council of the realm. United States. It consists of the Supreme Court, the circuit courts, and the district courts. The Supreme Court is created by the Constitution, and consisted in of nine judges, who are nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. They hold office during good behaviour, i. The court sits at Washington from October to July in every year. The sessions of the court are held in the Capitol. A rule requiring the presence of six judges to pronounce a decision prevents the division of the court into two or more benches; and while this secures a thorough consideration of every case, it also retards the despatch of business.
Every case is discussed twice by the whole body, once to ascertain the view of the majority, which is then directed to be set forth in a written opinion; then again, when the written opinion, prepared by one of the judges, is submitted for criticism and adoption by the court as its judgment. Circuit courts of appeals, established to relieve the Supreme Court, consist of three judges two forming a quorum , and are made up of the circuit and district judges of each circuit and the Supreme Court justice assigned to the circuit. Some cases may, however, be appealed to the Supreme Court from the circuit court of appeals, and others directly from the lower courts.
The district courts number ninety, in most cases having a single justice. There is also a special tribunal called the court of claims, which deals with the claims of private persons against the Federal government. It is not strictly a part of the general judicial system, but is a creation of Congress designed to relieve that body of a part of its own labours. The jurisdiction of the Federal courts extends only to those cases in which the Constitution makes Federal law applicable. All other cases are left to the state courts, from which there is no appeal to the Federal courts, unless where some specific point arises which is affected by the Federal Constitution or a Federal law.
The classes of cases dealt with by the Federal courts are as follows:—. Cases in law and equity arising under the Constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made under their authority;. Controversies between two or more states, between a state and citizens of another state, between citizens of different states, between citizens of the same state claiming lands under grants of different states, and between a state or the citizens thereof and foreign states, citizens or subjects Const. The jurisdiction of the Supreme Court is original in cases affecting ambassadors, and wherever a state is a party; in other cases it is appellate.
In some matters the jurisdiction of the Federal courts is exclusive; in others it is concurrent with that of the state courts. As it frequently happens that cases come before state courts in which questions of Federal law arise, a provision has been made whereby due respect for the latter is secured by giving the party to a suit who relies upon Federal law, and whose contention is overruled by a state court, the right of having the suit removed to a Federal court.
The power exercised by the Supreme Court in declaring statutes of Congress or of state legislatures or acts of the Executive to be invalid because inconsistent with the Federal Constitution, has been deemed by many Europeans a peculiar and striking feature of the American system. There is, however, nothing novel or mysterious about it. As the Federal Constitution, which emanates directly from the people, is the supreme law of the land everywhere, any statute passed by any lower authority whether the Federal Congress or a state legislature , which contravenes the Constitution, must necessarily be invalid in point of law, just as in the United Kingdom a railway by-law which contravened an act of parliament would be invalid. Now, the functions of judicial tribunals—of all courts alike, whether Federal or state, whether superior or inferior—is to interpret the law, and if any tribunal finds a Congressional statute or state statute inconsistent with the Constitution, the tribunal is obliged to hold such statute invalid.
A tribunal does this not because it has any right or power of its own in the matter, but because the people have, in enacting the Constitution as a supreme law, declared that all other laws inconsistent with it are ipso jure void. These phases can go from one to another when affected by certain things, which is known as phase changes. To switch from a solid to a liquid, the solid must melt.
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First characteristic is authentic leaders pursue their Stoichiometry Lab Report Words 3 Pages Chemical Reactions: Which balanced chemical equation best represents the thermal decomposition of sodium bicarbonate? To better understand this question, here are definitions of key words of the overall question. Stoichiometry is the science of the relationship between the relative quantities of substances taking part in a reaction or forming a compound. A balanced chemical equation is an equation of a chemical reaction where the number of atoms for each element in the reaction and the total charge is Ethical Codes And Guidelines Are Not Like Basic Recipes Words 6 Pages Ethics is an ongoing process in counseling in which every counselor should have some sort of knowledge about.
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