⚡ Character Analysis: Do Androids Dream Of Electric Sheep
There is a subtext of Character Analysis: Do Androids Dream Of Electric Sheep allegory in Blade Runnerparticularly in Character Analysis: Do Androids Dream Of Electric Sheep to the Roy Batty character. Blade Runner 's themes run much deeper than simply arguing about the literal nature of its protagonist. With the Bradbury Building all to himself, he makes the most of his considerable talents creating automata Character Analysis: Do Androids Dream Of Electric Sheep. To make matters Character Analysis: Do Androids Dream Of Electric Sheep, Gamzee repeatedly flips between a Character Analysis: Do Androids Dream Of Electric Sheep normal look and a nasty, Zalgo-like look, and it culminates in him singing "Bicycle Built for Two" to Tavros' severed head. He believed Parents Favoritism In The Book Of Genesis the replicants with memories would create a cushion that would allow for emotional development, Character Analysis: Do Androids Dream Of Electric Sheep make them more controllable.
DO ANDROIDS DREAM OF ELECTRIC SHEEP? - BOOK REVIEW
Everyone knows Harrison Ford is a badass, but either he's even stronger than we all thought, or Deckard is an android. Let's look at the fights in question. First, Deckard gets roughed up and choked out by Zhora, the first replicant he retires, but is still able to chase her down. Then he gets slammed around by Leon, who tosses him through a windshield. Later, Deckard ends up in a thigh-clamp headlock courtesy of Pris, who tried and failed to break his neck and rip off his nose. He then has his fingers dislocated by Roy, but rather easily relocates them and still manages to climb on buildings. All in all, Deckard remains largely unscathed during his successful Nexus 6 manhunt.
Given the fact that Nexus 6 replicants are significantly stronger than their creators and can crush human skulls like overripe cantaloupe , it's astounding that Deckard could survive Pris' attempt at decapitation and de-nose-ification—unless, of course, he's a replicant. What else could possibly match up against Los Angeles' four most dangerous on-the-loose androids? Either Deckard's just one hard dude, or he's a replicant himself—perhaps even a more advanced Nexus 7? Some viewers also believe that Roy Batty's decision to save Deckard at the film's climax, rather than let him fall to his death, indicates a recognition of kinship between the two replicants.
However, this crucial moment is far less about Deckard's nature than it is about his quarry's. But also in a way, because he wants a kind of death watch , where he knows he is going, dying. So in a sense he is saving Deckard for something, to pass on the information that what the makers are doing is wrong—either the answer is not to make them at all, or deal with them as human beings.
Obviously there are parallels to Apartheid and all sorts of things. This moment also provides a minor clue that Deckard may not be a replicant, in that Batty informs his hunter that he's "seen things you people wouldn't believe. After mulling over Blade Runner 's final scene and examining all the evidence, the next logical step in our quest to uncover Rick Deckard's true nature would be to ask the film's director, Ridley Scott. Luckily, he has a definitive answer. In an interview with Wired , Scott made the bold claim that his intention was to always have Deckard be a replicant, despite what anyone else thinks.
If you take for granted for a moment that, let's say, Deckard is a Nexus 7, he probably has an unknown life span and therefore is starting to get awfully human. So there you have it. If the director said Deckard's a replicant, he's a replicant Well, not quite. You see, not everyone involved in the film's production agrees. Scott may say Rick Deckard is a replicant, has always been a replicant, and will always be a replicant, but not everyone agrees — including the man who plays Deckard. Harrison Ford never bought Scott's theory that the titular blade runner was an android, despite what the director says.
In fact, Ford claims he and Scott were always at odds over Deckard's true nature. I thought I had won agreement to that, but in fact, I think he had a little reservation about that. I think he really wanted to have it both ways. So, who are we to believe? The director says Deckard is a replicant, and the man behind Deckard himself says he's a human—but can we really take the actor's word for it? After all, the character Ford portrays also believes he's human Perhaps Scott was pulling the wool over Ford's eyes the whole time. The director is the boss, after all. Blade Runner 's producer, Michael Deeley, sides with Harrison Ford when it comes to the Deckard-as-a-replicant debate, claiming that Deckard was never supposed to be a replicant.
In describing Ford's performance, Deeley said, "Well, of course there was the looming issue of here's an actor that wants to be playing in a classic style, which he did, like the early American detective films, that sort of feeling. Subsequently of course, it's argued that he is But that's the theory that I know was never in the original concept Actually, Ridley developed it Furthermore, Deeley thinks Ridley's twist is just plain stupid. In Paul M. Also an obfuscation. Not only did I never believe Deckard was a replicant, I also thought it futile to try and make him one. Harrison resisted the idea, too. But that was Ridley's pet theory, even if it didn't make sense.
Why would you do that? Deckard would be the first replicant you'd knock off if you were getting rid of them. Anyway, just because you say, 'Wouldn't it be funny if Deckard was an android? Of course, if you really want to know whether or not Rick Deckard is a replicant, it would make sense to see what Philip K. Dick passed away the same year Blade Runner hit theaters, and he never got to see the finished product. Still, according to Dick, the story's protagonist is definitely not a replicant. At least, not in the literal sense. Rather, the similarities between Deckard and the replicants he retires—i. Finally, Deckard must question what he is doing, and really what is the essential difference between him and them?
And, to take it one step further, who is he if there is no real difference? We can argue all we want about whether Eduardo Gaff knows the contents of Rick Deckard's dream, or whether Deckard's durability stems from him being some variation of the Nexus model, or whether the split second his retinas reflect light indicates that his eyes were manufactured in a laboratory And does it really matter that Ridley Scott always intended Deckard to be a replicant? The rather obvious answer is a resounding: "No. Blade Runner 's themes run much deeper than simply arguing about the literal nature of its protagonist. Rather than fight over whether Deckard is an android, we're all supposed to question the difference between the blade runner and the replicants he's tasked with disposing of.
The film forces us to question what it really means to exist in a bleak near-future of industrial smog, Coca-Cola advertisements, and loneliness. Initial concept work for the film was carried out by Ron Cobb and Chris Foss. The production was keen to ensure the sets of Alien had a unique look. According to production designer Michael Seymour , "We were very concerned about avoiding any direct influence from previous space productions. Our objective? To avoid any clear reference to any of them!
In this way, the extraterrestrial aspects were guaranteed to contrast with the look of the human spacecraft Nostromo , designed by Cobb. The sets of the Nostromo' s three decks were each created almost entirely in one piece, with each deck occupying a separate stage and the various rooms interconnected via corridors. To move around the sets, the actors had to navigate through the hallways of the ship, adding to the film's sense of claustrophobia and realism. The sets used large transistors and low-resolution computer screens to give the ship a "used", industrial look and make it appear as though it was constructed of "retrofitted old technology".
The company that owns the Nostromo is not named in the film, and is referred to by the characters simply as " the company ". However, the name and logo of "Weylan-Yutani" appears on several set pieces and props, such as computer monitors, beer cans and the actors' costumes. Cobb created the name Weylan-Yutani to imply a business alliance between Britain and Japan , deriving "Weylan" from the British Leyland Motor Corporation and "Yutani" from the name of his Japanese neighbor.
The sequel Aliens explicitly named the company as "Weyland-Yutani", and it has remained a central aspect of the franchise ever since. Art director Roger Christian used scrap metal and parts to create set pieces and props to save money, a technique he employed while working on Star Wars. Some of the Nostromo' s corridors were created from portions of scrapped bomber aircraft, and a mirror was used to create the illusion of longer corridors in the below-deck area. Special effects supervisors Brian Johnson and Nick Allder made many of the set pieces and props function, including moving chairs, computer monitors, motion trackers and flamethrowers. Four identical cats were used to portray Jones , the Nostromo crew's pet. During filming Sigourney Weaver discovered that she was allergic to the combination of cat hair and the glycerin placed on the actors' skin to make them appear sweaty.
By removing the glycerin she was able to continue working with the cats. Giger designed and worked on all of the alien aspects of the film, including the derelict, which he designed to appear organic and biomechanical in contrast to the industrial look of the Nostromo and its human elements. For the interior of the derelict and the Egg chamber he used dried bones together with plaster to sculpt much of the scenery and elements. Veronica Cartwright described Giger's sets as "so erotic It's big vaginas and penises The whole thing is like you're going inside of some sort of womb or whatever It's sort of visceral".
Scott described the set as the cockpit or driving deck of the mysterious ship, and the production team was able to convince the studio that the scene was important to impress the audience and make them aware that this was not a B-movie. To save money only one wall of the set was created, and the Pilot sat atop a disc that could be rotated to facilitate shots from different angles in relation to the actors. Giger airbrushed the entire set and the Pilot by hand. The origin of the Pilot creature was not explored in the film, but Scott later theorized that the ship might have been a weapons carrier capable of dropping Xenomorph Eggs onto a planet so that the Xenomorphs could use the local lifeforms as hosts.
Cobb and Giger each created concept artwork for these sequences, but they were eventually discarded due to budgetary concerns and the need to trim the length of the film. Instead, the Egg chamber was set inside the derelict and was filmed on the same set as the Pilot scene; the entire disc piece supporting the Pilot and its chair was removed and the set was redressed to create the Egg chamber. Light effects in the Egg chamber were created by lasers borrowed from English rock band The Who. Alien was filmed over fourteen weeks from July 5 to October 21, Production time was short due to the film's low budget and pressure from 20th Century Fox to finish on schedule — filming actually began before many of the complex sets were completed, with Scott having to frame his shots to work around sections that were unfinished.
A crew of over workmen and technicians constructed the three principal sets: the surface of the planetoid, and the interiors of the Nostromo and the derelict. Giger's designs, then made molds and casts and scaled them up as diagrams for the wood and fiberglass forms of the sets. Tons of sand, plaster, fiberglass, rock and gravel were shipped into the studio to sculpt a desert landscape for the planetoid's surface, which the actors would walk across wearing space suit costumes. The suits themselves were thick, bulky and lined with nylon, had no cooling systems and, initially, no venting for their exhaled carbon dioxide to escape. Combined with a heat wave, these conditions nearly caused the actors to pass out and nurses had to be kept on-hand with oxygen tanks to help keep them going.
For scenes showing the exterior of the Nostromo , a foot 18 m landing leg was constructed to give a sense of the ship's size. Ridley Scott still did not think that it looked large enough, so he had his two sons, Luke and Jake, and the son of one of the cameramen stand in for the regular actors, wearing smaller space suits to make the set pieces seem larger. Like the adults, the children nearly collapsed due to the heat of the suits, and eventually oxygen systems were added to assist the actors in breathing.
The film was originally to conclude with the destruction of the Nostromo and Ripley escaping in the shuttle Narcissus. However, Ridley Scott conceived of a "fourth act" in which the Alien appears on the shuttle and Ripley is forced to confront it. He pitched the idea to 20th Century Fox and negotiated an increase in the budget to film the scene over several extra days. Scott had wanted the Alien to bite off Ripley's head and then make the final log entry in her voice, but the producers vetoed this idea as they believed that the Alien had to die at the end of the film.
The spaceships and planets for the film were shot using models and miniatures. These included models of the Nostromo , its attached mineral refinery, the escape shuttle Narcissus , the planetoid and the exterior and interior of the derelict. Visual effects supervisor Brian Johnson, supervising modelmaker Martin Bower and their team worked at Bray Studios, roughly 30 miles 48 km from Shepperton Studios where principal filming was taking place. The designs of the Nostromo and its attachments were based on combinations of Ridley Scott's storyboards and Ron Cobb's conceptual drawings. Only one shot was filmed using blue screen compositing: that of the shuttle racing past the Nostromo. The other shots were simply filmed against black backdrops, with stars added via double exposure.
Though motion control photography technology was available at the time, the film's budget would not allow for it. Scott added smoke and wind effects to enhance the illusion. A separate model was created for the exterior of the derelict. Matte paintings were used to fill in areas of the ship's interior as well as for exterior shots of the planetoid's surface. The surface as seen from space during the landing sequence was created by painting a globe white, then mixing chemicals and dyes in a tank, photographing the results and projecting these images onto the sphere.
In Alien the planetoid is said to be located somewhere in the Zeta 2 Reticuli system. The scene of Kane inspecting the Egg was shot during post-production. The "Facehugger" and its proboscis, which was made of a sheep's intestine, were shot out of the Egg using high-pressure air hoses. The Facehugger itself was the first creature that Giger designed for the film, going through several versions in different sizes before deciding on a small creature with human-like fingers and a long tail. Dan O'Bannon drew his own version based on Giger's design, with help from Ron Cobb, which became the final version.
Cobb came up with the idea that the creature could have a powerful acid blood , a characteristic that would carry over to the adult Alien and would make it impossible for the crew to kill it by conventional means such as guns or explosives, since the acid would burn through the ship's hull. Giger's original design resembled a plucked chicken, which was redesigned and refined by effects artist Roger Dicken into the final version seen on-screen. When the creature burst through the prosthetic chest appliance worn by John Hurt , a stream of blood shot directly at Veronica Cartwright, shocking her enough that she fell over and went into hysterics. According to Tom Skerritt , "What you saw on camera was the real response. She had no idea what the hell happened.
All of a sudden this thing just came up. The real-life surprise of the actors gave the scene an intense sense of realism and made it one of the film's most memorable moments. During preview screenings the crew noticed that some viewers would move towards the back of the theater so as not to be too close to the screen during the sequence. In subsequent years the Chestburster scene has often been voted as one of the most memorable moments in film. In , the British film magazine Empire named it as the greatest rated moment in film as part of its "18th birthday" issue, ranking it above the decapitation scene in The Omen and the transformation sequence in An American Werewolf in London For most of the film's scenes the titular Alien was portrayed by Bolaji Badejo , a Nigerian design student supposedly encountered by the crew in an English pub.
Scott later commented that, "It's a man in a suit, but then it would be, wouldn't it? It takes on elements of the host — in this case, a man. Although Badejo was the principle Alien actor, in several famous scenes the creature was actually portrayed by stuntmen Eddie Powell and Roy Scammell. These include the scene where the fully-grown creature is first revealed, when it lowers itself from the ceiling to kill Brett ; in the sequence a costumed Powell was suspended on wires and then lowered in a graceful unfurling motion.
Shots of the Alien inside the vents also did not feature Badejo, as he simply could not fit inside the restrictive set. Scott chose not to show the Alien in full through most of the film, showing only pieces of it while keeping most of its body in shadow in order to heighten the sense of terror and suspense. The audience could thus project their own fears into imagining what the rest of the creature might look like: "Every movement is going to be very slow, very graceful, and the Alien will alter shape so you never really know exactly what he looks like. Roger Ebert has remarked that " Alien uses a tricky device to keep the alien fresh throughout the movie: It evolves the nature and appearance of the creature, so we never know quite what it looks like or what it can do The first time we get a good look at the alien, as it bursts from the chest of poor Kane John Hurt.
It is unmistakably phallic in shape, and the critic Tim Dirks mentions its 'open, dripping vaginal mouth. Alien' s iconic opening titles, in which the letters of the word A L I E N gradually appear on the screen one piece at a time, was created by the graphic designers Richard Greenberg, who had created the distinctive "flypast" opening credits for Richard Donner's Superman the previous year. The slowly-assembled title was originally intended to appear only in the film's minimalistic teaser trailer, but Scott was so impressed with the design that he incorporated it into the opening credits of the film as well; he would later call the titles the best of any film he has made.
The same style of gradually-assembled title was later employed in Prometheus and Alien: Covenant , and was also used in the opening credits of the video game Alien: Isolation. Editing and post-production work on Alien took roughly twenty weeks to complete. Terry Rawlings served as editor, having previously worked with Scott on editing sound for The Duellists Scott and Rawlings edited much of the film to have a slow pace to build suspense for the more tense and frightening moments.
According to Rawlings, "I think the way we did get it right was by keeping it slow, funny enough, which is completely different from what they do today. And I think the slowness of it made the moments that you wanted people to be sort of scared And I think that's how it worked. One famous scene that was cut from the film occurred during Ripley's final escape from the Nostromo : she encounters Dallas and Brett who have been partially cocooned by the Alien.
O'Bannon had intended the scene to indicate that the captured crew were be transformed into new Eggs by the Alien, thus completing the creature's life cycle. Production designer Michael Seymour later suggested that Dallas had "become sort of food for the alien creature", while Ivor Powell explained that, "Dallas is found in the ship as an egg, still alive. Tom Skerritt remarked that, "The picture had to have that pace. Her trying to get the hell out of there, we're all rooting for her to get out of there, and for her to slow up and have a conversation with Dallas was not appropriate.
An initial screening of Alien for 20th Century Fox representatives in St. Louis suffered from poor sound in the theater. A subsequent screening in a newer theater in Dallas went significantly better, eliciting genuine fright from the audience. Two theatrical trailers were shown to the public. The first consisted of rapidly changing still images set to some of Jerry Goldsmith 's electronic music from Logan's Run. The second, more famous trailer began with test footage of the Xenomorph Egg — in fact a decorated hen's egg — followed by silent clips of the movie set to haunting, alien "wailing" music, composed especially by Jonathan Elias.
The music from this trailer has subsequently been used in other Alien media, including documentaries and the trailer for Prometheus. The film was previewed in various American cities in the spring of and was promoted by the now-iconic tagline "In space no one can hear you scream". Alien opened in theaters on May 25, The film had no official premier in the United States, yet moviegoers lined up for blocks to see it at Grauman's Egyptian Theatre in Hollywood where a number of models, sets and props were displayed outside to promote it during its first run — religious zealots set fire to the model of the "space jockey", believing it to be the work of the devil.
Critical reaction to the film was initially mixed. Some critics who were not usually favorable towards science fiction, such as Barry Norman of the BBC's Film series, were positive about the film's merits. A review by Time Out said the film was an "empty bag of tricks whose production values and expensive trickery cannot disguise imaginative poverty". Giger later commented that Alien was a third-rate film, and said that he was secretly glad that he didn't "get a fair mention in the screen credits.
Alien has been released numerous times in multiple home video formats over the years. The first of these was a drastically edited seventeen-minute Super-8 version for home projectionists. Several VHS releases were subsequently sold both singly and as boxed sets. LaserDisc and Videodisc versions followed, including the Alien: Special Collectors Edition , which notably included deleted scenes and details on the making of the film.
To coincide with the release of Alien Resurrection in theaters in , Fox released the Alien Saga VHS box set, containing the first three films along with a bonus Making of Alien Resurrection cassette. A few months later the set was re-released with Alien Resurrection taking the place of the making-of video. Alien was released on DVD in , both singly and packaged with the other three films as The Alien Legacy , which additionally included a commentary track by Ridley Scott and a bonus DVD featuring an exclusive making-of, also titled The Alien Legacy.
The set was also released in a VHS version. On December 2, , Alien was released as part of the Alien Quadrilogy DVD box set, which featured both the theatrical release and a new alternate cut of each of the four films in the series, along with a host of bonus features. The Director's Cut of the film was specially created for the set, along with a new commentary track featuring many of the film's actors, writers, and production staff, and a feature-length documentary entitled The Beast Within: Making Alien.
Each film was also released separately as a stand-alone DVD, again featuring two versions of each movie. The Alien Quadrilogy set earned Alien a number of new awards and nominations. In , as part of the 40th anniversary of the film's original theatrical release, Alien will make its debut in 4K ultra high definition, both on 4K Blu-ray and as part of a limited theatrical re-release. A wide range of merchandise items were produced to coincide with Alien' s release. Adaptations of the movie included a novelization by Alan Dean Foster in both adult and "junior" versions , a coffee table photonovel produced by Avon Publications , and a comic strip adaptation of the film by Heavy Metal magazine entitled Alien: The Illustrated Story.
Two behind-the-scenes books were released to accompany the film — the first, entitled The Book of Alien , contained many concept sketches and production photographs, as well as details on the making of the movie, while the second, Giger's Alien , focused on the design of the titular creature and the artwork of H. Several tie-in magazines were also produced, including The Officially Authorized Magazine of the Movie Alien , which included a range of behind the scenes articles on the production, and two poster magazines from Paradise Press.
Topps released a set of trading cards based on the film. A soundtrack album was also released on vinyl featuring selections of Goldsmith's score; a remixed version of the main theme was even released as a single. Heavy Metal also produced an Alien calendar for the year. Kenner Products also produced an 18" Alien action figure , as well as a board game in which players raced to be first to reach the shuttle pod while Aliens roamed the Nostromo' s corridors and air shafts.
Despite the popularity of the Kenner merchandise, the company recalled all of its products due to complaints from parents that the toys were "too scary" and criticism over selling children merchandise for an R-rated film. As a result, the 18" figure in particular has become an incredibly sought-after item. Several computer games based on the film were released, but not until several years after its theatrical run. Alien had both an immediate and long-term impact on the science fiction and horror genres.
Shortly after its debut, Dan O'Bannon was sued by another writer named Jack Hammer for allegedly plagiarising a script entitled Black Space. However, O'Bannon was able to prove that he had written his Alien script first. In the wake of Alien' s success, a number of other filmmakers imitated or adapted some of its elements in their own movies, sometimes even copying its title.
One of the first was The Alien Dead , which was renamed at the last minute to cash in on Alien' s popularity. Despite the altered title, the film still built on press coverage of Alien' s Chestburster scene by having many similar creatures, which originated from large, slimy eggs, bursting from characters' chests. An unauthorized Italian sequel to Alien , titled Alien 2: On Earth , was released in and included alien creatures which incubate inside human hosts. Another unauthorized Italian-made sequel from the period, Bruno Mattei's Terminator II , included numerous aspects lifted from Alien and its sequel Aliens. Other notable science fiction films of the era that exploited elements of Alien include Inseminoid , Galaxy of Terror , Forbidden World , Xtro and Creature In the decades since its original release critics have analyzed and acknowledged Alien's roots in earlier works of fiction.
It has been noted as sharing thematic similarities with earlier science fiction films such as The Thing from Another World and It! The Terror from Beyond Space , as well as a kinship with other s horror films such as Jaws and Halloween Literary connections have also been suggested, including thematic comparisons to And Then There Were None Many critics have also suggested that the film derives in part from A. O'Bannon, however, denies that this was a source of his inspiration for Alien' s story. Van Vogt actually initiated a lawsuit against 20th Century Fox over the similarities, but Fox settled out of court. Writer David McIntee has also noted similarities to the Doctor Who episode " The Ark in Space " , in which an insectoid queen alien lays larvae inside humans which later eat their way out, a life cycle inspired by that of the ichneumons wasp.
He has also noted similarities between the first half of the film, particularly in early versions of the script, to H.Sapper Morton Dave Character Analysis: Do Androids Dream Of Electric Sheep is an older Nexus-8 replicant, living in seclusion on a protein farm in the industrial outliers of Queen Shammuramat: A Queen Of Assyria Angeles. The success Character Analysis: Do Androids Dream Of Electric Sheep Alien spawned Character Analysis: Do Androids Dream Of Electric Sheep media franchise of Hamlin FCCS Observation, comic books, video games, and toys, as well as three Character Analysis: Do Androids Dream Of Electric Sheep and two prequel films. The author promises Body Horror in later chapters. K's intuition led him The Importance Of Indecision In Hamlet examine the remains closer and a serial number was Character Analysis: Do Androids Dream Of Electric Sheep to be inscribed on the bone. Deckard tracks her down at Taffey's after Character Analysis: Do Androids Dream Of Electric Sheep her snake's scale, and she soon realizes that he is dangerous. Dan O'Bannon has argued that the Life Sentences For Juveniles is Nature: The Power Of Beauty In The Romantic Era metaphor for the male fear of penetration, and that the "oral invasion" Character Analysis: Do Androids Dream Of Electric Sheep Kane by the facehugger functions as "payback" for the many horror Why Is Pablo Picasso Important in Character Analysis: Do Androids Dream Of Electric Sheep sexually vulnerable women are attacked by male monsters.